Who is responsible for reducing our plastic waste?

Plastic waste

Last week, China introduced a ban on importing plastic waste and debates kicked off on a proposed ‘latte levy’ to cut coffee cup waste. Guest author, Hannah, joins us here on Which? Convo as she ponders whether it’s time we took a bit more responsibility for our own waste?

Today was my recycling day and I diligently put out our waste. Admittedly, there was more than usual thanks to the Christmas excesses, but as ever, my mind turned to how to consume less plastic as I squashed it all into the green bin.

Waste in the UK

Last week, China introduced its ban on importing plastic waste, meaning the UK can no longer ship its recycling to China. We’ve been sending an incredible 500,000 tonnes of plastic for recycling to China every year – that’s more than a quarter of all our plastics – but now the trade has been stopped.

So, what are we going to with it all? It’s no shock to hear the UK Recycling Association saying that the UK cannot deal with that much waste. And Recoup, an organisation which recycles plastics, says China’s imports ban could lead to stock-piling of plastic waste and incineration and landfill.

And according to a report published on Friday, in the UK we use and throw away around 2.5 billion takeaway coffee cups. Using these non-recyclable coffee cups produces around 30,000 tonnes of waste every year. Some MPs are now calling for 25p ‘latte levy’ on takeaway coffee cups to cut waste.

If you watched Blue Planet II recently it was hard not to be concerned about our passion for plastic, as David Attenborough explained how marine life is being affected. Greenpeace estimates that 12.7 million tonnes of plastic ends up in our oceans each year, killing marine life, threatening ecosystems and contaminating the fish we eat.

Recycling has hit a low point

Last April, I wrote here on Which? Conversation about how few throwaway plastic bottles are made from recycled materials – just 7%, according to a Greenpeace report.

And, the news of China’s importing ban on plastic waste comes at a time when UK recycling rates have flatlined for five years – Keep Britain Tidy says that rates dropped to 44% in 2016. Now that we‘ve lost our ability to recycle much of our plastic in China, the knock-on effect on our recycling rates could be disastrous.

Solving the plastic problem

In November, the Chancellor announced that the government is considering taxing single-use containers, following a four-week consultation on bringing back deposit return schemes for bottles. The idea has been backed by retailers, including Co-op and Iceland.

I like this idea as it puts responsibility on both the retailer and the consumer, plus it’s been proven to work in other countries. In the UK, just 57% of all plastic bottles are collected for recycling, compared with up to 90% in countries that have deposit return schemes.

But I also believe in taking more personal responsibility and this year I’ve made it my resolution to consume less plastic. Here are a few ways that I have started:

  1. 1. Using tubs instead of plastic wrap to store food in the fridge and special ‘bento’ boxes for the children’s packed lunches
  2. 2. I got a Sodastream fizzy water maker for Christmas so I don’t have to buy bottled fizzy water – I would highly recommend this to fizzy water lovers!
  3. 3. No more plastic packets of ready-sliced cheeses – my new cheese slice creates the same thin slices for sandwiches
  4. 4. Buying loose fruit and veg instead of ready-packaged produce in plastic trays – and reusing the small plastic bags from my local fruit and veg shop
  5. 5. Taking a reusable coffee cup to cafés when buying a takeaway coffee.

Have you made any small changes like this to try to reduce your plastic consumption? How much personal responsibility do you think we should take and how much should be placed on the government and industry to make major changes? Do you think a plastic deposit-return scheme could help reduce waste?

This is a guest contribution by Hannah Jolliffe. All views expressed here are Hannah’s own and not necessarily also shared by Which?.


I still suggest the way to start to tackle waste packaging – plastic or otherwise – is to reduce the amount of unnecessary packaging used in the first place.

Elisabeth Leedham-Green says:
7 April 2018

Those plastic wrappers which come round magazines and the like are well suited to taking to the supermarket to hold loose fruit and veg.

Please note the reduced life of the modern microwave oven.

Waste is another major problem. Due to their relative low cost and ease of manufacture, consumers are throwing more electrical and electronic (EE) equipment away than ever before, including microwaves.

In 2005, across the EU, 184,000 tonnes of EE waste was generated from discarded microwaves. By 2025 this is estimated to rise to 195,000 tonnes, or 16 million individual units being sent for disposal.

Dr Alejandro Gallego-Schmid, from the School of Chemical Engineering & Analytical Science, explains: ‘Rapid technological developments and falling prices are driving the purchase of electrical and electronic appliances in Europe. Consumers now tend to buy new appliances before the existing ones reach the end of their useful life as electronic goods have become fashionable and ‘status’ items. As a result, discarded electrical equipment, such as microwaves, is one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide.’

Another major contributing factor to the waste is a reduced lifespan of microwaves. It is now nearly seven years shorter than it was almost 20 years ago. Research shows that a microwave’s life cycle has decreased from around 10 to 15 years in the late 90s to between six to eight years today.

Read more at:

My microwave oven dates from either the late 80s or early 90s, is used daily and is still clean and presentable. It has no turntable, though there is a microwave distributor just above the roof of the chamber. It was one of the first with electronic controls, but otherwise it is a very simple construction. I suppose I could replace it with a more sophisticated oven with convection heating or steam but that adds complexity and more that can go wrong.

In my experience, complicated products are more likely to go wrong. My neighbour’s Land Rover had to be taken away on a transporter yesterday. It had died after 10 months.

We have discussed smart TVs losing their apps because they are outdated, resulting in TVs being scrapped even though they are otherwise in good condition.

It’s not just plastic bags and bottles that are a problem, but they are something we can all relate to and do something about.


You should look at the waste figures for washing machines if you really want a scare.

Almost all modern machines having a plastic outer tub or tank on them now, or some sort of composite material but, plastic to the most fo us.

There is no need for that and to make matters worse, many if not most are now sealed so when something gets jammed in them, bearings fail etc there’s not any option but to scrap the machine or buy a whole new tub unit.

Monumental amounts of needless waste.

Yet for many years vitreous enamelled or stainless steel tanks that were serviceable was just fine.

Manufacturers will say they’re more reliable but I’d challenge that as, they say that based on use figures but as the things are so expensive, nobody buys them!

Then there’s dishwashers with injection moulded inner tubs instead of stainless as well. Far more common in the US though than the EU.

Wavechange often cites plastic as a problem where it’s (to my mind) not but everyone seems to miss where it is a problem and, detrimental to consumers, at least in my opinion it is.

Injection moulded fridge inner liners make sense, anti-bacterial, easy to clean and so forth, that makes sense. Plastic control panels for shock avoidance, especially on areas that can be exposed to moisture, again makes sense.

But some use of plastic is, in my opinion, purely cost led to reduce production and ticket price in store and for no other reason of any significance.

So, EU wide at least, the using of probably millions of tons of the stuff could be halted very easily. Aside the huge benefits gained through longer lasting, more serviceable products.

But that requires some common sense I’m afraid and a change in legislation and/or standards.


I have only cited three problems with plastics, as far as I can recall. Firstly the increased fire risk when used in cases, secondly plastic components that are poorly engineered and break, and thirdly that some white plastics can go yellow with age. I’m actually a plastics enthusiast and have done research relating to production of novel plastics that are compostable.

I fully agree for the need for new legislation and/or standards.

I have just replaced my combi microwave circa 1990, although the convection was still working, the microwave was not. So as I frequently use both, a decision had to be made whether to keep it and buy a new microwave at only half the price of a combi. Due to its age I decided to replace the whole thing and bought a new combi which, at the end of the day saves on your energy usage. For example, one jacket potato takes 15 minutes using combined combination + microwave as against 1 to 1.1/2 hrs in a conventional oven.

It’s certainly not good news if the new model is expected to have a shorter life span as buying new at an inflationary linked price, apart from convenience, ultimately defeats the objective of saving money on energy bills.

The same principle applies to CH boilers, but of course there is added environmental issues, although according to The Telegraphs Jeff Howell, condensers still emit dangerous toxins into the atmosphere which can erode the metal on your neighbours car if left standing on their driveway, so I hate to think what these toxins are doing to your neighbours and the interior of their homes every time they open their windows.

Hopefully you will be as lucky with your new oven, Beryl.

This will be the article you are referring to about CH boilers: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/property/advice/9978580/Jeff-Howell-how-can-we-deal-with-steam-from-a-condensing-boiler.html

The acidic condensate can shorten the life of boilers and I would not want to park my car below a vent.

Hmmm. I read one sentence with something approaching incredulity:

This is just one unintended side effect of the energy-efficiency obsession resulting from the “man-made global warming” myth.

So he doesn’t believe that the Climate change is produced primarily as a consequence of human activity, or he doesn’t believe in Climate change at all? Whichever, it’s worrying.

The article was dated 09th April 2013, so in light of recent undeniable and convincing evidence to the contrary maybe he has changed his mind.

The salient point being, if the same toxins are being emitted into the atmosphere, although perhaps at a reduced rate, why should your neighbour be allowed to site them away from their own home to the annoyance and possible harm of their neighbour and their parked vehicles? At least nearly all the old type boiler exhaust emissions were sited on the roof.

Wall-mounted flue terminals have been with us for many years. In my previous home the boiler was installed in 1981 or earlier. In these days boiler heat exchangers were made of cast iron rather than aluminium, so less affected by flue acids. Perhaps it will become standard to fit plume management kits for new and replacement boilers, especially since all new boilers are condensing ones.

We seem to have departed from plastic waste :-)To the Lobby ▶️ ? 🙂

My old microwave combi is currently parked in the hall awaiting its demise at the local waste disposal.

Malcolm the point of my above post was to demonstrate the impracticality of disposing of an appliance that works perfectly well in one section but not the other, which begs the question, would it save on the amount of waste if the two sections were separate entities?

Sometimes microwaves stop working because of a simple fault. For example, a fuse may blow as a result of age rather than a fault. Scrapping a product that is not fully working is not as bad as disposing of fully working items that could go to a charity rather than the recycling centre.

Electrical equipment is segregated from other waste and maybe the plastics are recovered. Non-electrical goods are often thrown into a skip with non-recyclable waste.

Steph says:
27 January 2018

Use only card board applicators for sanitary products and whilst banishing. Unnecessary plastic from your house- go cruelty free on anything you bring in too !

Menstrual cups seem very cost-effective and green as an alternative.

This site covers alternatives earthwisegirls.co.uk/ecofriendlyperiods-g-19.html


Surfers Against Sewage doing a fine job of getting communities to give up plastics:
” Tynemouth, Aberporth and Perranporth persuaded many of its traders and businesses to swap single-use plastic items and packaging for reusable or biodegradable alternatives and held regular beach cleans with community groups and schools.

The village of Aberporth waged war against plastic with the 1,100 residents swapping to reusable packaging and opting for items including glass milk bottles.

To be awarded with the status, areas must meet SAS’s five Plastic Free Coastline objectives and bring together businesses, the community and local governance to work together and reduce the reliance on single-use plastics.

SAS aims to have 125 anti-plastic communities across the UK by 2020. Currently there are over 165 communities working towards the status by making simple changes that will have significant positive impact.”

Shame this action was not revealed in the Conversation.

On tonight’s news was a report on the scheme in Norway for recycling plastics bottles. This embodies some of the suggestions made here: only 2 types of plastic permitted, restrictions on labelling and glue, deposits on bottles. The scheme is operated by the drinks industry and recycles 97% of bottles.

For those who missed it shops have “bins” that accept the bottles and issue a voucher in return, equivalent to the deposit paid.

Perhaps Which? could take up this specific example to start a campaign to recycle plastic bottles in the UK?

It would be good if the UK could be leaders rather than followers in the battle to reduce plastic waste: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-42953038

I try my best to reduce the amount of waste I produce. I always carry a bottle for juice or water and I have multiple containers for food. If I eat out at all, I try and carry a container instead of asking for a doggy bag for my leftovers. When shopping I always carry material shopper bags and I also sew them up if a handle breaks. 🙂

In the run up to Pancake Day, Tesco has been stocking 500ml plastic bottles containing some flour and other ingredients, plus a lot of air. The idea is that you add water, shake the bottle and pour the contents into a pan. Innovation brings new ways to create plastic waste.

I believe the way to tackle waste is to drastically reduce the amount of packaging and put the emphasis on the packaging producer to recycle the waste.
All manufacturers should increase their product prices but also have a returns policy to recoup the additional cost of the initial purchase.
All returned waste would benefit from the refund (similar to the old Corona Man’s pop bottles – http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/waleshistory/2012/06/story_of_corona_pop.html ) and the waste product returned for the manufacture to reuse/recycle or dispose of.
It would also be much easier to police large manufacturers in their recycling and waste management.

Which? ought to find a sustainable alternative to the polyethylene wrappers in which it mails out its magazines. Apparently these can be recycled via the carrier bag recycling bins in major supermarkets, but not via kerbside collections. But I’ll bet the vast majority of wrappers just get binned.

Hi Mark, they can be recycled via the carrier bag recycling bins. The Which? editor is committed to looking into alternative packaging for our magazine and as a Which? member you can also view the magazine on the website, under My Account, so if you want to go online-only there is also that option.

Just watched the end of an item on supermarket plastic wrapping on the news.

According to the interviewee, veg is multi-packed because of pressure from the consumer. Suppliers say they can save the supermarket money by not wrapping veg.

I think the interviewee was wrong and the pressure comes from the supermarket to multi-wrap veg so they can sell more of a product. It is also a way for supermarkets to make sure they sell all their veg and not just the sizes consumers want, e.g. potatoes, parsnips, carrots.

If I only want one of a product and can only buy a pack that I am not going to use, I don’t buy it and get something else or do without. If a pack of potatoes or parsnips contains sizes I would not use, I don’t buy them.

Good news of a supermarket in Amsterdam launching the world’s first plastic-free aisle though.

In our daily life, we can collect eps waste and no worries they are totally recyclable and healthy to our environment, PET Bottles Compactor Poseidon Series from GREENMAX
With the help of Poseidon, all you need to do is pulse-on the machine and then throw the PET bottles into the feed bins. Poseidon can do all the rest tasks automatically. The liquids are squeezed out while the bottles are compacted.
After process, 85%-95% of the liquids are extracted from the bottles and they are collected into a tank. Before draining out, they would be treated first in order to avoid water pollution. As for the compacting effect, the bottles’ volume ratio before and after compacting is around 6:1.

I get wood pellets delivered in LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene bags – like builders’ rubble sacks). This is identified as a category 4 plastic.
There’s nowhere at all to recycle it in quantity (I’ve got several years worth – probably about 200kg!).
Local council: nothing. County Council: nothing except incinerate it. No local recycling companies…
We need to pressure the government to insist ALL recyclable plastics ARE actually recyclable! Cat 4 is simple to make into new bags…

Maybe someone like Biffa would buy it if the quantity is sufficient? https://www.biffa.co.uk/about-us/operational-infrastructure/plastic-recycling/plastics-we-buy/
It should be made mandatory for all councils to deal with recyclable plastics. If they cannot process it themselves they should pass it on to those who can.

I am saddened to see this report about artificial grass: https://www.which.co.uk/news/2018/08/artificial-grass-the-best-way-to-a-green-lawn-in-the-drought/

Plastic microbeads have been banned and the public has been made aware of plastics pollution of our oceans thanks to Blue Planet. Which? has focused on the problems created by single-use plastic bottles and plastic food packaging. Despite publicity about the the effect of artificial grass on the environment, neither the article above or the Which? tests on these products mentions the risk to the environment of plastics that can fragment but will not biodegrade.

Here is a link explaining some of the problems: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/jul/04/growth-in-artificial-lawns-poses-threat-to-british-wildlife-conservationists-warn

Earlier today I complimented Which? for raising awareness about environmental matters.

Hi @wavechange – I didn’t mention that I had passed this on to our testing team, but I did. Thank you for highlighting this issue and I can assure you the testing team will be giving this matter more consideration in the coming months, including how we can present the environmental issues in our content.

Today I noticed that the next toothpaste tube I shall be using contains plastic microbeads. This is old stock and I am in a quandary: should I use it or discard it? Either choice has adverse environmental implications. Alternatively I could send it back to Colgate and ask them to dispose of it safely for me. Any ideas?

When a ban is forthcoming, why carry on producing products containing plastic microbeads? I doubt that a tube of toothpaste is going to make a difference in the grand scheme of things.

I have been very disappointed with Colgate and I believe that Colgate Total is a product that still contains triclosan, which has at least been removed from most if not all handwashes sold in the UK.

I have had that tube for a long time, Wavechange, so I do not know whether microbeads are still being used.

This comment was removed at the request of the user

We’ve had Convos on plastic waste, and Which? have published an article in the mag. It is a matter of concern to many consumers. Why then do Which? not launch an investigation into the packaging problem with a view to making sensible proposals that could be implemented quickly to reduce plastic waste. A lot of suggestions have already been made that they could build on.I’m sure willing Members could assist them.

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This comment was removed at the request of the user