/ Home & Energy

Turning up the heat on district heating


Many of us don’t trust energy suppliers, but what if you were stuck with one supplier for as long as you lived in a property, with no control over the price you pay? This is the reality for many district heating customers.

More than 200,000 homes across the UK are connected to a district heating network. This is where heat from a central source is distributed to properties through a network of pipes. And its use is growing, particularly in built-up urban areas. The Government thinks district heating could provide heat to eight million homes by 2030.

There are benefits; it can be low carbon and there’s no need to maintain a gas boiler. However, there is currently very little protection for consumers living in properties connected to district heat networks. They have no choice in who they get their heat from. No access to an ombudsman should they have a complaint. And no control over the price they pay.

We’ve uncovered unacceptable detriment

Over the past year we have been conducting a major investigation of district heating. We spoke to customers on district heating networks, including those of you who shared your views here on Which? Convo. We found widespread dissatisfaction, with cost a major concern.

The people we surveyed had concerns ranging from worry that they had been mis-sold district heating, to confusion around what was included in their bills. Many of them felt let down and frustrated by poor customer service and complaints handling procedures.

It’s an emotive issue, as one private homeowner from London told us:

‘We are stuck between the supplier and the developers, with each blaming the other for the lack of hot water. All the while we … face numerous outages and so have to boil a kettle to wash or bath my two and a half year old in.’

We also looked at the cost of district heating and found a huge difference in the price paid by customers. Some were paying up to 25% more for their heating than if they’d been on a standard gas deal, and that includes all the additional costs of installing and maintaining a gas boiler. In many cases, district heating customers couldn’t understand why they were being charged a high standing charge, despite not having the heating on and using little or no hot water.

District heating – what’s the solution?

We have been working with the industry on Heat Trust, a voluntary consumer protection scheme. Heat Trust aims to replicate many of the protections available to those with gas or electric heating, such as access to an ombudsman and guaranteed standards of performance. However, as a voluntary scheme, it won’t cover all consumers and it won’t tackle the issue of fair pricing.

Access to affordable and reliable warmth and hot water is a fundamental right; we rely on it for comfort and health. Everyone deserves a fair deal and great customer service from their heat supplier. However, there’s a danger that district heating companies will take advantage of their unregulated, monopoly position.

We think the next government needs to step in to address the issue. It must look beyond ‘voluntary’ consumer protection and review fair pricing for district heating schemes, while heat suppliers should improve complaints handling and ensure pricing is transparent.

Do you have first-hand experience of district heating? Do you think the next government needs to step in to protect consumers?

Useful links

Read the report – Getting a fail deal for District Heating users [PDF]
What are my rights with district heating?


I’ve just moved to a new build in Cranbrook, Exeter. It has no other option or provider than Eon. Just had a 1 month bill for £76!!! We only use it twice a day during the week morning and eve, and a bit more at weekends, with bathing etc. too of course as standard. This costs way more than gas central heating. I used to live in a large 3 bed, 3 storey town house that cost half this to heat in winter. Even taking some extra cost from the electric and adding it to the overall billing, it was nowhere near. Absolutely ridiculous!!!! Rip-off! And it says it’s supposed to be more cost effective! What am I missing?

Lisa Johnson says:
2 March 2022

We live in a new build development with district heating from E.ON. We’ve just had new prices sent to and the unit cost has more than doubled!!
It was sold in as a zero-carbon, efficient energy solution – so why do they blame wholesale gas prices for the price increase? We all thought it was a biomass plant and therefore protected from what wholesale gas was doing.
The worst part is that we can’t switch to another provider – they have a monopoly and can charge whatever they want.

District heating has had a difficult reputation since its early days, but usually on grounds of efficiency rather than price. The fact that residents cannot elect an alternative provider is a major problem and Lisa [above] raises a pertinent question about using the wholesale price of gas as a pricing mechanism when the supply is from a biomass power plant. Although when one commodity is in short supply other fuels also increase in cost the linkage should not be so direct and immediate for a supplier on the scale of E.On.

I have sometimes wondered whether district heating is factored into property values in a positive or negative way. If positive, then some sort of correction is no doubt required which will depress values. If negative, then to some extent owners have had a capital-saving benefit but one that is depreciating too quickly and, again, over time property values will be affected.