/ Home & Energy

It’s too hard (and costly) to repair our home appliances

Woman fixing a washing machine

How can a £200 washing machine cost almost as much to repair when a £10 part breaks? Manufacturers are making home appliances much harder to repair – leading to fewer being repaired and more being thrown away.

Which? has been investigating product reliability since 1971 and our experts’ comments in our articles over the years suggest that appliances have generally become more reliable.

But impossible-to-repair machines and falling prices mean there’s a growing trend towards throwing appliances away, rather than getting them fixed when they fail. And in some cases, a seemingly simple repair will cost as much as a brand new machine.

£180 to fix a faulty £10 part

Take an example from some recent Which? research. The Beko WM1540W washing machines comes with drum paddles which are fitted from the inside of a sealed drum. This means that if the one of the £10 paddles breaks, owners of the Beko will need to replace the whole drum. This is because the inner and outer sections of the drum are welded together, rather than being bolted.

This pushes the cost of repair up from £10 to closer to £180 for a new drum assembly and two hours of work to fit it. Beko told us:

‘As a result of feedback from our service department, we decided to change the design of the drum. Since the introduction of the new drum, significantly fewer problems with the model have been reported.’

Too much trouble to repair?

In years gone by fixing something like a broken paddle wouldn’t have been a problem for a repairperson, and it’s even something you could do yourself, if you knew what to do. There’s plenty of advice out there on the internet for budding appliance repairpeople, and replacing a part like this wouldn’t cost much; about a tenner for the part.

But these days, it’s not just a broken plastic paddle that could mean a costly repair visit, or a trip to the tip with your washing machine. And it isn’t just Beko that makes its washing machine drums like this.

Sealed drums mean that if anything gets trapped between the inner and outer drum, such as a coin or a stray bra wire, a repairperson won’t be able to take your machine to pieces to retrieve it. Or if the drum bearings need replacing, an engineer won’t be able to access them.

Instead, if you want to fix your machine, you’ll need to shell out almost £200 to buy a new drum and have it fitted. But who in their right mind is going to do that when you can get a brand new machine for the same amount?

Improve these cheap, throwaway models

In terms of average incomes, washing machines accounted for about 8% of our salaries in 1971. That’s down to 1.5% now. So should we be happy with simply having cheap washing machines and not worry too much that they can be impossible to repair?

I don’t think so – it can’t be a good thing that some important appliances that we use everyday can’t even have simple repairs carried out on them and I wish manufacturers wouldn’t make them like this.


It isn’t in the manufacturers’ interests to sell spare parts. They are already making so little profit on new appliances because the general trend amongst consumers is to want “something for nothing” – i.e. an appliance at an unrealistically low price (in my opinion this is because consumers want to replace appliances like fashion accessories and can’t afford to do so if the prices are realistic).

The whole situation is immoral and unforgivable at a time when recycling and reusing is so essential to our future (our as in the human race I mean).

I think it is significant that my 1957 Hoover Vacuum, which cost my grandparents what was in 1957 about a months wages to buy, is still functioning as well as the day it was new, I can still get all the consumable spares (Belts, brushes, carbon brushes, bearings, bags) from local shops, it uses less electricity to run (because it is built better) than modern ones and it has embarrassed slaes reps from Dyson and Kirby by being able to out perform their machines.

There is a similar story (which I have told before in detail so I won’t repeat it at length here) for my 1979 Glow Worm Boiler (never yet gone wrong never yet needed any spare parts) and my 1983 Hoover Washing machine (never had a major malfunction yet, can still get consumable parts like motor brushes, bearings (which can be fitted relatively easily), door seals, etc). But place them in context again: the Glow Worm boiler cost what in 1979 was about my father’s salary for 3 months (he was a white collar worker but not of the highest rank to give you an idea) and the washer cost me (at that time a retail assistant) almost 4 months’ salary.

Now people expect to buy a washer for under £200 (mine cost £295 from Rumbelows in 1983) or a boiler for not more than a couple of week’s pay or a Vac for certainly no more than a week’s pay. And they expect to be able to chuck all of these out and have a new one every few months or years when it suits them to change for the sake of change. It’s hardly surprising that manufacturers don’t want to bother with repairs.


Thanks for posting Dave – it’s great to hear about your 54 year old Hoover and your 32 year old boiler. I’m glad that you’ve managed to get so much mileage out of both. When researching the “Built to last?” article in this month’s Which? I heard about a sixty year old Hoover owned by a Which? member, so yours isn’t far off.

You’re right Dave, of course. Appliances are much cheaper for us now and I’m sure are seen as being disposable for some. But it would be so much better if the very simple things could be repaired easily.

Repairmen I’ve spoken to are pulling their hair out at the thought of unrepairable sealed washing machine drums.

My gut feeling is that it shouldn’t cost the earth to build domestic appliances that can be easily repaired. What does everyone else think?


“Built in obsolescence” is all part of the business plan. If they built things to last forever then they would go out of business, sad as it may seem.

Having worked in QA for nearly 15 years, testing and quality assurance is merely given lip-service to satisfy the auditors. They all pretend to have “a commitment to quality” when in fact all they want is quick time to market.

As an example, I worked on a project for TomTom whereby the route calculation time was 40% slower than the device it replaced. Not surprising given that all the components were costed down to the lowest amount possible to save costs. Due to the time it would take to re-engineer the software, it was delivered with this shortfall in performance safe in the knowledge that the customer “won’t notice it if they didn’t have a previous device”.

I won’t divulge the model number, but I will always prefer the older models as they were build to last.


Even basic maintenance, to avoid break-downs, is not made easy.

Things like washing machines & dishwashers involve ‘stuff’ & ‘goo’ and so have filters.

I recall our old machine had a ‘fluff filter’ right at the front, which you unscrewed to clean out. Now it seems to be in the guts of the new one.


The cost is in manual labour . Look how handymen operate now wanting to price each job however small. Worst is when you pay for them to assemble & the product is faulty??! Who suffers. Or that when you order money is taken before made . Then if catalogue each item sent one by one to not be delivered summoning you to wait in queues of over 20 at sorting office. !


Sometimes you can get a happy surprise if you do seek a repair. We complained to Pure about our Evoke Flow digital radio which we’d had for two years – then the speaker stopped working. They told us to send it in for a repair and rather than repairing it they sent us a completely new unit. Unsurprisingly I felt that with an after care service like that I couldn’t complain much about it breaking in the first place.


You did better than me, Victoria. The £30 rechargeable battery in my Pure Evoke 3 radio became useless when it was just over a year old. Politely pointing out that a rechargeable battery should last more than a year achieved nothing. I then discovered that a lot of other people had found the same problem and that Pure had redesigned the battery, but a second call achieved nothing.

As a result of the treatment I received from Pure customer service, I chose a Roberts radio when buying one as a Christmas present for a friend.

Sophie Gilbert says:
5 August 2011

My microwave oven has just packed in and I haven’t got it repaired because it would have cost me the same as buying a new one. I have therefore bought a new one, kept the old one’s “turntable” bits as they are expensive to replace, just in case, and the rest is going to my local electrical appliances recycling centre.


I’m sorry to hear you’re microwave has given up the ghost Sophie. We carry out product reliability research with Which? members each year – our latest research shows that microwaves are among the most reliable domestic appliances. That said, it sounds very sensible to hang on to the turntable, rollers and spindle, as long as they fit your new machine.


I bought an AEG washing machine in the mid-90’s. After about 5 years’ of hard use, the drum started spinning intermittently. I do my own repairs and on investigation, I found the carbon brushes had worn out. I called AEG spares with the relevant model number and was told it was not possible to buy the brushes separately as they were riveted to the motor casing and I would need a new motor assembly costing £180!

Not to be fobbed off with this, I took the brushes to a large spares retailer near here and asked if he had anything similar. He said they looked just like Hotpoint brushes, but checked his microfilm and said he had a part number for the AEG brushes. He couldn’t supply these, but he kindly wrote down the part number.

I rang AEG the next day, quoted the part number, and a new pair of brushes were ordered and delivered for less than £10 – no questions asked. They fitted perfectly, being identical to the “unobtainable” brushes I had tried to order the week before. I’ve never bought an AEG applicance since.


This might have been a genuine mistake by someone in the parts department. The fact that you managed to obtain replacements suggests that this is the case.


The cost of production versus the cost of maintenance is skewed by the labour costs involved.
Goods are manufactured and assembled using relatively low cost labour.
Repair and maintenance in the UK uses high cost labour + travelling time.
Then factor in:
Product design for easy assembly rather than easy disassembly and repair,.
The cost of stocking and supplying spare parts.

Brian Watters says:
7 August 2011

Simple, durable, easily repairable appliances are better for the panet as well – and our pockets in the long term.

It’s what I call “the Morris Minor principle”. The trouble is that there’s very little in it for big business.

About the only such thing you can buy today is the Dualit toaster. Not cheap but once you’ve bought one that’s it – toaster for life. It comes to bits like Meccano and every bit likely to break is replaceable. I’m leaving mine to the children in my will…


Dualit toasters are very expensive. Yes they can be repaired easily, but you could buy a cheap toaster for the cost of replacing the heating elements on a Dualit.

What we need are affordable products that can be repaired easily and economically.


I think the solution could be to look for appliances with extended parts & labour warranties.

Manufacturers that produce appliances that are durable and/or easy to repair should be praised and others named and shamed for producing machines that contribute to the mountain of domestic appliances that have to be disposed of as uneconomical to repair.

Routine replacement parts (e.g. motor brushes and door seals for washing machines) should be available for a minimum of ten years for a manufacturer to be allowed to sell appliances.


In general “cheap” and “cost effective repairable” are incompatible terms for domestic electrical goods.

Christopher Ninnis says:
12 August 2011

I have an Hotpoint washer dryer that I bought in 1978 for about £580 back then
it has only just started to give up the ghost..sometimes it works sometimes it dosn’t.I think the control unit is worn out if I knew how to find the model number which has worn off..I would try to get it repaired..I asked my local Hotpoint dealer if he could help,he said buy a new one..seems a shame to lose a trusty old friend


Does it seem to anyone else that suppliers are also taking the route of designing in as features things that feel like faults? I phoned BEKO to complain about my new washing machine not spinning when I washed the doormat and was told it was designed that way to avoid damage to the drum and I should add to the load so that it would balance (no suggestions as to what I would wish to have in the same wash as a doormat). My sister regularly (25% of the time) fails to get a spin on a full load of sheets “so that an unbalanced load won’t damage the drum”. Her vehemently expressed opinion is that she can’t wait for the drum to fail so she can buy a new machine that might actually do what she needs it to do (and that her old machine did for years before failing)!
Talking to the company that provides maintenence, all brands are now the same – yet washing machines used to work, and last for years!
Does anyone know of a make that will do its job without this so-called design feature?


I bought a Bosch Gas Hob and the (lift-off) pan supports are not quite straight, and wobble.

They’ve sent umpteen ‘replacements’ but they’re all the same, or worse.

Their only suggestion now is that I should get a different make hob!

But since theirs needs a bigger worktop cutout, it would mean getting a new worktop – all because they can’t supply straight supports.

(Might they have a Siemens or Neff branded alternative since they’re part of the same group? Yes, but they’re even more lopsided!!)


You could try exercising your legal rights but you could get nowhere fast.

Is it not possible to modify the supports or get a handyman to do this?


My Toshiba microwave I bought in 1983 for £299 is still going strong
apart from a bulb replacement done free within the 5-year
guarantee period.

Panasonic automatic rice cooker bought in 1979 is functioning well apart
from pilot light not working: not a problem.

They don’t make stuff as long lasting as in older days, friends
of mine have said so too.

When buying appliances/ products, I generally buy the more
reputable brands, paying more if necessary…works out cheaper
in the long run… and as to cookware too like Le Creuset
that I’ll swear by.

Craig Miles says:
26 November 2011

I am looking into starting a business repairing & recycling ‘white goods’ & some other electrical devices, and was wondering what people thought of buying refurbished white goods (washing machines etc).

What length of guarantee would persuade you?

What price would make it worth considering, compared to new machines?

Young says:
8 February 2012

We bought a (Which? recommended) Miele S4210 cylinder vacuum cleaner a few years ago. It performed well but then suddenly – without warning – it died on us. The repairer confirmed that although still mechanically sound, it required a replacement circuit board costing around £80. A new cleaner – with at least two years’ guarantee – could be purchased for not much more than this.

So we bought one – a Bosch BSG71266GB (also Which? recommended). Again, this did an excellent job for just over 24 months before suddenly conking out last week. And again, the diagnosis is that the motor is in good nick, but requires a replacement electronic component costing £80(+).

Bosch and Miele both make much of their environmental credentials. But there’s nothing very green about a pricing policy which encourages customers to chuck out (almost) perfect machines and buy brand new ones when a minor component fails.

By contrast, my grandparents were still happily using in the 1960s an Electrolux cylinder cleaner that they’d bought some 40 years earlier. Any repairs were straightforward and inexpensive.

So much for technological progress…

23 February 2012

Indeed a nice post I m also related to this field thanks for giving a nice post .I hope that in future you also give some nice post .

JamesAard1 says:
24 February 2012

If you have any intelligence, you would firstly buy a decent product. Secondly, the ‘Mr. Fixit’ man/woman (from home or elsewhere) can easily fix most things, just as I do. All the parts for my old and new things are available on the net somewhere. A simple toolkit and knowhow fixes it all. Mind you, some ‘Mr. Fixit’ people are just greedy amateur thieves and should be shot!

Young says:
24 February 2012

Re comments by JamesAard1 – I don’t think “a simple toolkit and knowhow” are enough to fix the kind of modern product – like our Miele and Bosch vacuum cleaners mentioned above – which require a small but incredibly expensive electronic component to be fitted before they’ll return to life.

So customers end up lumbered with machines which are mechanically quite sound, but without (for example) a replacement printed circuit board – costing £80 plus – totally useless. Faced with this choice, most people will opt to buy a brand new cleaner.

As Miele and Bosch’s crazy pricing policy on electronic spares is clearly designed to prompt customers to chuck out old products and buy brand new, it makes these companies’ “green” credentials look pretty bogus.


I’ve recently been researching new washing machines having sold our last one with our house and I was very interested to read about ISE washing machines that a designed ‘like the good old days’ so they can be easily and cheaply repaired if and when parts break. They are a similar price to the Best Buy Miele washing machine but I am surprised there is no review of them on Which?


I agree, Lucy. It is important that consumer ‘durables’ should be designed to be repaired easily.

It is crazy that appliances are regarded as beyond economical repair because of small faults. There is no shortage of people seeking jobs and it is about time to start doing something about the mountains of waste washing machines that are disposed of after a short working life.

I would like to see repairability mentioned in Which? reports. There is a recent Conversation about the big differences in running costs of fridge-freeezers etc., and that is another important factor we need to consider, at least for appliances in continuous or frequent use.


The cost of electrical goods has come down significantly in real terms especially in relation to cost of technical labour over the last 50 years.
Therefore for many smaller and cheaper electrical items even an hours labour will make a repair uneconomic especially if it involves a call-out.
It doesnt help that many items are designed to be assembled easily and quickly and this often precludes quick dis-assembly for repair.


Dismantling faulty equipment can be very time consuming since – as Rarrar says – it is often designed for easy assembly and no thought given to repair. A DIY enthusiast can often do their own repairs. For example, it is usually easy to replace a damaged mains lead.

Security screws and awkward plastic clips can be dealt with, but the increasing use of adhesive and solvent welding to hold plastics together can make repair impossible.

James Harrison says:
1 February 2013

Surely the ‘green’ issue has a lot to play in the future for such businesses and practises? To make items ‘built to last’ only a few years, whilst at least 90% of each item is working perfectly and recyclable, makes throwing such goods away almost criminal! Surely a washing mashine (for example) which can be easily repaired or is composed of many parts which can be – and are re-used, will be a major USP? Has anyone built their own washing machine (or other household machine) out of other working parts?

Mr Try and Fix It First says:
3 February 2015

From the comments above someone should start a spare parts library and fix it tips database. Most of fix it types remove usefull looking still good parts from their appliances. Like how we all used to save the plug – no longer needed as everything has a plug. We could all register and have free or lo cost spares for postage.i’ll start. I have a bosch fridge freezer digital stat and beko WMe brushes and whirlpool tumble dryer heater and panasonic microwave pcb. Every scrap metal dealer who strips stuff down would love it.and i really could use the stuff in the shed that one day will come in handy (only for someone else)
Apologies if already exists -send me the link!


have you not heard of the circular economy , dame helen mcarthur is fronting..its a great idea
not sure how it works but it could be set up like the following and if some major manufacturer wants
to take note my idea is based on the circular economy format.see link
it would be that you dont buy items you rent them long term from a company and when its
by its sell by date they will take it back give you a recycled new appliance and your old one will be
repaired upgraded and ready for next customer so nothing goes to landfill…if the
government are so keen on the carbon footprint this should be the way to go it could work for most appliances and would keep lots of people in jobs and ensure products are built to last the cost to rent
should be minimal as products would be expected to last for years with no maintenance costs


The EU have circular economy proposals: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/circular-economy/index_en.htm
How long will they take to implement……?
I think renting usually works financially in the renters favour, so prefer purchasing where possible. If we make sure that products are both durable and repairable we would begin to reduce waste.


I am very suspicious of the circular economy because it will drive customers to replace products on a frequent basis, like contract phones and cars bought under personal contract purchase. I’m no expert but it looks like a marketing exercise and the main benefit is that goods could be recycled properly and efficiently – but long before necessary.

It would be good if Which? would look at the circular economy plans and give us an indication of whether they are in the interest of customers or not.

I prefer to keep most household goods for as long as possible with the exception of phones, computers etc., which I will replace when they are outdated.


Following paul’s link to washing machines brings this (American) article that has interesting points to make:
Leasing would give cost-certainty and an incentive for the manufacturer to make quality products that can be repaired, refurbished and economically recycled. Equally if the same machine was sold with a proper guarantee and economic repair facilities available it would probably be better to purchase outright (even with a loan if capital wasn’t available) than to lease.
It all comes back to durability and repairability – as I see it crucial if we are to avoid waste of materials and resources.


🙁 Trouble posting a comment so it appeared twice. Duplicate gone now 🙂 . I’d forgetten that when including a web link nothing happens when you post – the comment just sits in the box you create it in.


It really is time that the AdMod team on this W? facility devized a solution to this paternalistic and petty restriction.
Astonishingly we are not even allowed to have access to:
Line thru’
Image inserts

which are functions available in all but the most basic ameteur on-line Forums.
May we now have a Thread devoted to suggestions for up-grading THIS Forum, so that AdMods don’t have the opportunity to:
** Close this discussion by declaring it ”Off Topic”;
** Threatening to close the Thread if we don’t behave ourselves like good little Public School Girls and Boys (That Magister-ial behaviour by a Pedagogue in a State school wouldn’t last much more that 10 seconds, 9, 8, 7 ….. )
** Impune one’s integrity by unsubstantiated allegations posted on-line, challenges to which they will not even respond, in issue specific terms, by PM.
Do remember the closing lines of
”Animal Farm”
and heed the safeguards needed against
”Corporate Capture”


It’s ’emboldening’ and we do have access to both it and italics. And even strikethrough. The Administrators and moderators in here have an extremely light touch. And admins will always have the capacity to terminate discussions. For so many obvious reasons. But it’s good to hear you place such store in the word of an old Etonian.


Hi all, please share your website suggestions here: https://conversation.which.co.uk/technology/welcome-to-the-new-which-conversation/ Thanks very much


It is sensible to have links checked before publishing in case any are malicious or otherwise “undesirable”. In the original convo a message appeared to say this was being done. Now it isn’t and I had forgotten that. You can avoid this by using just the title of the link or offering a search term.

I think there are times when a picture or graphic would be useful to add to a comment. One way might be to email it to Which Conversation, have them put it on a dedicated site and then provide a link to it from a comment.

Bold, italics and others are possible, although many don’t seem to use them. They were explained somewhere in the New Conversation convo which is also a good place to make comments about improving the structure of the forum.



To some people (me included) a very important factor in th epurchase of any major applicance or piece of equipment is the support and maintainability, both whilst the item is in its available lifecycle stage, but also once it is non -catalogue and int oth ediscontinued and obsolete/legacy phases.
Unfortunately I have yet to see any Which reports that include these criteria as a part of the assessment.
I have had excellent experiences with some manufacturers – Dell springs to mind – who maintain an easy to use support website with documentation available that goes way back.
Conversely, the support of some once reputable “names” – especially household names that have now been bought by retailers – is all but non-existent, even for absurdly trivial things like operating manuals.
Availability of spares is another issue with some brands well provided for but others – and again, “in house” brands of many retailers – enjoying limted or even zero support by third party suppliers.
Before you buy, find the manufacturer’s website and check how well supported current products are and also check out some legacy models, which will give you at least some idea of what to expect in a few years time.
You could also download the latest manual(s) for anything you own and build up your own library online using, say, Google Drive.
As I say, I find it strange that Which doesn’t include support and maintainability as a buying criteria for almost everything